Ahsa.Pk has carefully found some 2nd Year Chemistry Important Short Questions that are most essential ones for class 12 students’ board examination preparation.

2nd Year Chemistry Important Short Questions

Chapter 1

  • Why melting and boiling points of elements belonging to group VA –VIIA are lower.
  • Discuss the trend of ionization energy in periodic table.
  • Why first ionization energy of Mg is greater than that of Na?
  • Define electron affinity. Give its trend in Periodic table.
  • Write any two resemblances of hydrogen with Alkali Metals.
  • Give reason that hydration energy of Al3+ ions is more than Mg2+ ions.

Chapter 2

  • Why group IIA elements are called Alkaline Earth Metals.
  • Give reason that alkali metals are strong reducing agents.
  • Why is CaCl2 added in molten NaCl in Down’s cell
  • Write the advantages of Nelson’s cell.
  • Differentiate between Alkali and Alkaline earth metal.
  • Lithium is least reactive element of all alkali metals. Give reasons.

Chapter 3

  • Aqueous solution of borax is alkaline in nature Justify the statement.
  • What is reaction of heat on orthoboricacid, H3BO3?
  • Give reactions of Aluminium with dilute and concentrated H2SO4.
  • Outline any four uses of aluminum?
  • Give two similarities between carbon and silicon.

Chapter 4

  • How does nitrogen differ from other elements of its group?
  • Why does aqua regia dissolve gold and platinum?
  • Why the elements of group VI A other than oxygen show more than two oxidation states.
  • Write down a comparison of the properties of oxygen and sulphur.
  • Write down the equation for the reaction between conc. H2SO4 and copper and explain what type of reaction is it.
  • “N2O supports combustion” Give two reactions in favour of the statement?
  • What happens when NO2 is dissolved in water?
  • Give reaction of Cu with dil. HNO3 and conc. HNO3.
  • Write any four uses of nitric acid?
  • How does HNO3 act as an oxidizing agent?
  • What is aque-regia?
  • Write two dissimilarities of oxygen and sulphur?
  • What is the optimum condition for the manufacture of H2SO4 in the contact process?
  • Write two reactions in which sulphuric acid acts as a dehydrating agent.
  • How sulphuric acid act as an oxidizing agent.
  • Write any four important uses of H2SO4.

Chapter 5

  • Arrange the following ions in order of increasing size  F, CL- , Br-, I-.
  • Why iodine has metallic luster?
  • Why the lattice energy of Fluorides is greater than Chlorides.
  • Halogens are strong oxidizing agents. Justify.
  • On what factors, oxidizing power of halogen depends upon.
  • Why oxidizing power of halogens decreases down the group?
  • HF is a weak acid, while HCl is a strong acid. Give reason.
  • Write down reaction of chlorine with cold and hot NaOH.
  • HXO4 is the strongest oxyacid. Explain.
  • Write four uses of Bleaching powder.
  • Write Chemical reactions of Bleaching powder with HCl and NH3.
  • What happen when bleaching powder reacts with the following reagents dil H2SO4 excess of conce. H2SO4, NH3, HI and CO3.

Chapter 6

  • Give four important characteristics of transition elements.
  • What are interstitial compounds?
  • Give reason for the development of colours in the transition complexes.
  • What is Tin plating and what happens when it is damaged?
  • Define sacrificial corrosion.

Chapter 7

  • What is vital force Theory?
  • Define “Thermal cracking”.
  • Define catenation?
  • What is catalytic cracking?
  • Octane number of gasoline is improved by reforming. Explain.
  • Differentiate between Alicyclic and aromatic compounds.
  • What are alicyclic compounds? Give an example.
  • Write name and structure of two aromatic heterocyclic compounds.
  • Define tautumerism, give an example.
  • 1-Butyne does not show geometrical isomerism, but 2-Butene does. Give reason?
  • Why is restricted rotation necessary to show the geometrical isomerism?
  • What is metamerism? Give an example.

Chapter 8

  • Write structural formulas of the following: But-1- en- 3 –yne & Vinyl acetylene.
  • Prepare alkanes from Clemmensen and Wolf-Kishner’s reduction methods from aldehyde or ketone?
  • How ethane can be prepared by Kolb’s electrolysis?
  • What is the effect of branching on boiling points of alkanes?
  • Sigma bonds are inert in alkanes. Justify.
  • What is heat of combustion?
  • Convert CH4 to CH2O.
  • Give four uses of methane?
  • Convert methane to ethane?
  • Ethene can be converted into ethyl alcohol. Write equation.
  • What is Baeyer’s test? What are its uses?
  • Describe how we can distinguish between ethane and ethane?
  • Explain Markownikov’s rule with one example.
  • Define Rany nickel. Give its uses?
  • Give the mechanism of ozonolysis of ethane?
  • What is hydrogenolysis? Give an example.
  • How will you convert 1- butane to 1 – butyne.
  • How ethyne is converted to ,(a)- Acetaldehyde  (b) Benzene.
  • How Cis and Trans alkenes are obtained from alkynes.
  • Distinguish between ethane and ethyne by a chemical test.

Chapter 9

  • What are monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons?
  • Write names and draw structures of three possible isomers of Xylene?
  • Give two reasons to rule out straight chain structure of benzene?
  • What informations are obtained about structure of benzene from X-ray studies?
  • Define resonance energy? What is the resonance energy of Benzene?
  • Why benzene is less reactive than alkenes although it has three pi bond in it.
  • Benzene can be prepared commercially form acetylene. Give reaction with conditions?
  • What is Wurtz-Fritting reaction?
  • Give the mechanism of nitration of Benzene?
  • Give mechanism of sulphonation of Benzene?
  • Convert bezne in to  (i)- Toluene    (ii)- Acetophenone
  • Write the mechanism of alkylation of benzene?
  • Write the reaction when mixture of benzene vapours and oxygen is passed over heated vanadium pentoxide.
  • How toluene can be converted to benzoic acid?
  • What is meant by meta directing group.

Chapter 10

  • What are primary and tertiary Alkyl Halides? Give examples.
  • Prepare alkyl halides from alcohols by two methods?
  • Write excellent method to prepare alkyle iodide.
  • What is leaving group? Give examples.
  • Define electrophile and nucleophile?
  • Give general mechanism patterns of SN2 reaction.
  • Discuss E2 mechanism.
  • What are elimination reactions? Give example E1 reaction.
  • What are B-Elimination reactions?

Chapter 11

  • Why ethyl alcohol is liquid while Ethyl chloride is gas at room temperature.
  • Absolute alcohol cannot be prepared by fermentation process. Why?
  • Explain denaturing of alcohol?
  • How will you distinguish between methanol and ethanol?
  • How will you distinguish between 1- propanol and 2- propanol?
  • Write four uses of each methanol and ethanol.
  • Prepare phenol from chlorobenzene by Dow’s method.
  • Write down two methods for the preparation of phenol.
  • Why Phenol is acidic while alcohol is not?
  • Explain acidic behavior of phenol.

Chapter 12

  • Define aldol condensation. Give its mechanism.
  • Define Cannizaro’s reaction. Explain its mechanism with a suitable example.
  • Write four tests by which aldehydes can be distinguished from ketones.
  • Write any four uses of acetaldehyde.

Chapter 13

  • Write down structural formulae of pthalic acid and malonic acid.
  • Write down mechanism of reactions.  (a) Between acetic acid and ethanol  (b)   Acetic acid and thinoyl chloride
  • How would you convert acetic acid into methane and acetic anhydride.
  • What happens when followings are heated?

          a)       Sodium Format and Soda lime

          b)      Sodium acetate and soda lime

  •  Give four uses of acetic acid? 

Chapter 15

  • Distinguish micronutrients and macronutrients for plants. Chapter 15
  • Give reactions of preparation of urea by using NH3 and CO2.
  • Brief about perilling of urea.
  • Write down formulas for superphosphate and triple phosphate.
  • Explain the importance of potassium fertilizer.
  • How urea is manufactured? Write its reactions.
  • What are phosphatic fertilizers? Give two formulas of phosphatic fertilizer.
  • Give an idea about clinker.
  • Define cement. Give its essential components.
  • Draw flow sheet diagram for the manufacture of cement.
  • Describe chemical changes that occur in the different zones during the manufacture of cement.
  • What do you mean by Calcareous materials and argillaceous material, the manufacturing of cement?
  • What are clinkers? How are they converted into cement?
  • Write various types of raw material used in preparation of cement.

2nd Year Chemistry Important Long Questions

By Ahsa.Pk

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